Nuclear Security for protecting against nuclear terrorism

What is Nuclear Security ?

The IAEA defined “Nuclear security” as the prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access and illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material and other radioactive substances and their associated facilities.

Japanese government stated its responsibility of nuclear security at the 3rd Nuclear Security Summit (March 24, 2014) that Japan strives all the time to ensure the 3Ss; Safeguards, Safety and Security, which are essential for advancing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Japan also committed regarding nuclear security as follows;

  1. Continuation of making efforts to minimize nuclear material.
  2. Strengthening of domestic nuclear security.
  3. Enhancement of our international contributions

Source: “Summary Statement by Prime Minister Abe”, March 24, 2014, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan

JNFL fully understand that it is important to improve the transparency of the plutonium utilization to obtain the public understanding in domestic and international society.

Fundamental measures of Nuclear Security

  1. Physical protection measures and rules taking into account Design Basis Threat (DBT)
  2. Systems and rules on security measures considering insider threat
    • At least two authorized and knowledgeable persons to be present to verify that activities involving nuclear material and nuclear facilities are required.
  3. Systems and rules on cyber security measures for plant control system including insider threat countermeasures
    • Plant control systems are isolated from the external systems physically and electrically.
    • Malware inspections with lifetime control for personal computers connecting with plant control system and computer medias such as DVD, USB and SD card are implemented.
    • Access to the electric cabinets that contains DCS (Distributed Control System), EWS (Engineering Work Station), HMI (Human Machine Interface) and PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) on plant control systems are limited.
  4. Access authorization for persons, vehicle and packages
    • Vehicles, persons and packages should be subject to search on entering the protected areas for detection and prevention of unauthorized access and of introduction of prohibited items.
    • Only authorized persons should have access to the protected areas. Effective measures such as combining bio attestation with ID card are required to ensure the detection and prevention of unauthorized access.
  5. Access limitation to sensitive information
    • Access to sensitive information should be limited to those whose trustworthiness has been established appropriate to the sensitivity of the information and who need to know it for the performance of their duties.
  6. Education and training
    • E-learnings on security culture are provided to all employees in regular basis.
    • Force on force exercises are performed in regular basis.

Nuclear security measures at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

The Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant has introduced strict security measures, taking into consideration the scheme of the security measures of the defence in depth(note) concept in the international security guideline “INFCIRC 225/rev.5” by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Note: Defence in depth describes a combination of multiple layers of systems and measures that have to be overcome or circumvented before nuclear security is compromised. (Source: IAEA Security Series)

Concept of defence in depth

Concept of defence in depth

Example of security systems at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant
  1. Guarded Area(JNFL Specific)
    • ID conformation of the person and vehicle by security guards
    • Physical barriers with Surveillance Cameras, and Intrusion Sensor
  2. Limited Access Area
    • ID conformation with inspection (article, vehicle)
    • Physical barriers with Surveillance Cameras, and Intrusion Sensor (more than dual)
  3. Ingress & Egress Control Building
    • Bio attestation
    • Inspection by X-ray Machine and Metal Detector and so on
  4. Protected Area
    • Physical barriers with Surveillance Cameras, and Intrusion Sensor (more than dual)
  5. Inner Area
    • Bio attestation
    • Inspection by Metal Detector, and Explosive Detector
  6. Vital Area
    • Bio attestation
    • Inspection by Metal Detector, and Explosive Detector

Examples of strict security measures at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

1. Two Person Rule Control System

From the insider threat viewpoint, Japan introduced the “two person rule”. JNFL implemented the Two Person Rule Control System as access control to the vital areas in the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant.

Access control concept drawing

Access control concept drawing

The system is composed of optical cameras and an iris recognition device. Access control door opens when the device confirms more than two designated persons’ irises.

2. Force on Force Exercise

Force on Force Exercise for nuclear facilities has been introduced in Japan since 2010. According to the NRA’s requirement, JNFL is delivering those exercises in regular basis with the cooperation of police, and a “complete scenario-less exercise” is enforced as a mandatory requirement. Through the exercise, effectiveness of the physical protection systems such as intrusion detecting sensors and surveillance cameras, and facility performances are evaluated.